Anaconda


It is the heaviest and one of the longest known extant snake species. The term anaconda often refers to this species, though the term could also apply to other members of the genus Eunectes. The green anaconda is the world's heaviest and one of the world's longest snakes, reaching 5. Although it is slightly shorter than the reticulated python , it is far more robust: The color pattern consists of olive green background overlaid with black blotches along the length of the body.

The head is narrow compared to the body, usually with distinctive orange-yellow striping on either side. The eyes are set high on the head, allowing the snake to see out of the water while swimming without exposing its body. The remote location of the snake's habitat has historically made locating, capturing, and returning specimens difficult. Transporting very large specimens to museums, especially before substantial decay, is difficult though this has not prevented the return of much larger and more cumbersome crocodilian specimens.

Reports without physical proof are considered dubious if from nonscientists, as such individuals may at worst be more interested in promoting themselves or telling a good tale, or at the least may not be sufficiently trained in proper measurement methods.

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Observational reports of animals which were not captured are even more dubious, as even trained scientists often substantially overestimate the size of anacondas prior to capture. Older reports in particular could include individuals which, in times of less pressure from humans, lived longer lives and thus reached greater sizes.

Numerous historical accounts of green anacondas are reported, often of improbable sizes. Several zoologists notably Henry Walter Bates and Alfred Russel Wallace , among others note rumors of snakes beyond 30 or 40 feet long, but in each case, their direct observations were limited to snakes of approximately 20 feet in length. Numerous estimates and second-hand accounts abound, but are generally considered unreliable.

To prove the point of overestimating, in Guyana in , zoologist Alpheus Hyatt Verrill asked the expedition team he was with to estimate the length of a large, curled-up anaconda on a rock. The team's guesses ran from 6. While in Colombia in , herpetologist William W. Lamar had an encounter with a large female specimen which measured 7. Schurz claimed to have measured a snake in Brazil of 8. When this specimen was 5. Size presents challenges to attain breeding condition in larger female anacondas and while larger sizes provide the benefit of larger number of offspring per clutch , the breeding frequency of the individuals reduces with size, indicating that there's a point in which the advantage of larger clutch size is negated by the female no longer being able to breed, [2] for the anaconda, this limit was estimated at approximately 6.

In the famous 10th edition of Systema Naturae of , Carl Linnaeus cited descriptions by Albertus Seba and by Laurens Theodorus Gronovius to erect the distinct species murina of his new genus Boa , which contained eight other species, including Boa constrictor. The first specimens of Boa murina were of immature individuals from 2. Linnaeus almost certainly chose the scientific name Boa murina based on the original Latin description given by A. Seba [19] in The Latin adjective murinus murina in this case would mean "of mice" or "connected with mice," understood in context as "preying on mice", and not as "mouse-gray-colored" another possible meaning of Latin murinus as now often wrongly indicated for E.

Early descriptions of the green anaconda by different authors variously referred to the general color as brown, glaucous, green, or gray. Common names for E. Local names in South America include the Spanish term mata toro , meaning "bull killer", and the Native American terms sucuri Tupi and yakumama in the Peruvian Amazon , which means "water mother" in the Quechua language of the jungle people Yakurunas or "water people". In Trinidad, it has been traditionally referred to as the huille or huilla. Eunectes murinus is found in South America east of the Andes , in countries including Colombia , Venezuela , the Guianas , Ecuador , Peru , Bolivia , Brazil , the island of Trinidad , and as far south as northern Paraguay.

Anacondas live in swamps, marshes, and slow-moving streams, mainly in the tropical rainforests of the Amazon and Orinoco basins. They are cumbersome on land, but stealthy and sleek in the water.

Green anaconda

Their eyes and nasal openings are on top of their heads, allowing them to lie in wait for prey while remaining nearly completely submerged. The primarily nocturnal anaconda species tend to spend most of its life in or around water. Anacondas are also sometimes known as the water boa; they spend more time in water than any of the boas.

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They seem rather slow and sluggish when traveling on land due to their size, although they have the potential to reach high speeds in the water. They tend to float beneath the surface of the water with their snouts above the surface. When prey passes by or stops to drink, the anaconda will strike without eating or swallowing it and coil around it with its body.

The snake will then constrict until it has suffocated the prey. Primarily aquatic, they eat a wide variety of prey , almost anything they can manage to overpower, including fish , birds , a variety of mammals , and other reptiles. Particularly large anacondas may consume large prey such as tapirs , deer , capybaras , caimans , and even jaguars , but such large meals are not regularly consumed.

The green anaconda's eyes and nose are located on the top of the head, allowing the snake to breathe and watch for prey while the vast majority of the body is hidden underwater. They employ constriction to subdue their prey. Cannibalism among green anacondas is also known, most recorded cases involving a larger female consuming a smaller male.

While the exact reason for this is not understood, scientists cite several possibilities, including the dramatic sexual dimorphism in the species, and the possibility that a female anaconda requires additional food intake after breeding to sustain the long period of gestation. The nearby male simply provides the opportunistic female a ready source of nutrition. This species is solitary until the mating season, which occurs during the rainy season, and can last for several months, usually from April to May. During this time, males must find females. Typically, female snakes will lay down a trail of pheromones for the males to follow, but it is still unclear how the males of this species track a female's scent.

Another possibility is that the female releases an airborne stimulant. This theory is supported by the observation of females that remain motionless while many males move towards them from all directions. Male anacondas also frequently flick their tongues to sense chemicals that signal the presence of the female.

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Retrieved from " https: The sign up for the kickstart list is located at anaconda kickstart list site. Of course, we get help from other people both from Red Hat and from the volunteer community as well. Comstock Books in Herpetology. Edwin described a ' tiger ' being crushed and killed by an anaconda, when in fact tigers never occurred in Sri Lanka. However, females are physically much larger and stronger and may decide to choose from among the males.

Many males can often find the same female. Although it may not be necessary for there to be more than one male, this results in odd clusters referred to as "breeding balls", in which up to 12 males wrap around the same female and attempt to copulate. The group could stay in this position from two to four weeks. This ball acts as a slow-motion wrestling match between the males, each one fighting for the opportunity to mate with the female.

During mating, males make use of their spurs to arouse the female. They aggressively press their cloacal regions hard against the female body, while continuously scratching her with their spurs. Past discussions can be found in the anaconda development archives. The second list is a user oriented list of how to create kickstart files. The kickstart list is the place to discuss automated installation issues.

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The sign up for the kickstart list is located at anaconda kickstart list site. Past discussions can be found in the anaconda kickstart archives. Patch review used to take place on a mailing list dedicated to submitting and reviewing patches.

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Patch review now takes place on GitHub via pull requests. Past discussions of patches can be found in the anaconda-patches archives , which is the main purpose this mailing list now serves. There is also an anaconda [? This resource is for discussion of anaconda development, not for distribution customization questions. For how to contribute to Anaconda and related projects, see the Contributing to Anaconda and related projects documentation.

Please note that useful contributions are not limited to submitting patches for source code. You can also help with testing , reporting bugs, improving translations or extending the Anaconda documentation. The earliest parts of anaconda are in shell for integration with dracut, and there's still a little bit of C thrown in for interfacing with certain libraries.

Familiarize yourself with the tools that anaconda uses. Check out the following external reference documents:.

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The primary methods of distributing the anaconda source are source RPMs in the Fedora development tree and git. To access the current source code in non-rpm format, you'll need to install git.

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Note that several related packages will be installed as well. After the git source code management tool has been installed, then you use anonymous git access to the Anaconda repository. If you would just like to browse the Anaconda git repository via the web, then please use the following Anaconda git URLs. Anaconda has an extensive suite of tests that is still growing. If you contribute new functionality, it's good practice to include some tests along with that. We have a document that outlines the test suite infrastructure and describes how to run tests.

To contribute you should read our guidelines for contributing. If you are having difficulty installing, please file the problem report with your distribution vendor. Before filing a bug, please read up on How to debug installation problems , which will tell you how to fill out useful bug reports that will help us quickly solve your problem. Also try searching Bugzilla for other reports about your problem, as some bugs are often filed by several people.

AnacondaBugWorkflow is a guideline to how Fedora anaconda bugs pass through Bugzilla, and what all the various statuses really mean.