2011 Nuclear Power Plant Sourcebook: Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX), Plutonium Health Effects, Fabrication F


Where Do We Stand? Scientific Issues in Fuel Behaviour Society and Nuclear Energy: Towards a Better Understanding Results for Four Test Problems. Stakeholder Involvement in Decision Making: Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Stakeholders and Radiological Protection: Lessons from Chernobyl 20 Years After Strategic View on Nuclear Data Needs Nuclear Energy - Edition The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Resources, Production and Demand — Executive Summary Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary Resources, Production and Demand Executive Summary Validation of the JEFF One of the many important lessons learnt about nuclear safety over the years has been that human aspects of nuclear safety are as important as any technical issue that may arise in the course of nuclear operations.

The international nuclear community can work together to identify and address issues associated with components and systems and compare operational experiences, but identifying how human behaviour affects safety and the best approaches to examine this behaviour from country to country remains less common.

Practical experience has nevertheless shown that there are important differences in how people work together and communicate across borders. The NEA safety culture forum was created to gain a better understanding of how the national context affects safety culture in a given country and how operators and regulators perceive these effects in their day-to-day activities. The ultimate goal is to ensure safe nuclear operations. This report outlines the process used to conduct the forum, reveals findings from the discussions and invites the nuclear community to further reflect and take action.

The NEA has a long tradition of expertise in the area of nuclear emergency policy, planning, preparedness and management. Through its activities in this field, it offers member countries unbiased assistance on nuclear preparedness matters, with a view to facilitating improvements in nuclear emergency preparedness strategies and response at the international level. The exercise was held during and , with 22 countries participating in the exercise. This report summarises the major evaluation outcomes of the national and regional exercises, policy level outcomes, recommendations and follow-up activities emerging from INEX-5 and the discussions at the INEX-5 International Workshop.

A set of key needs were identified in areas such as real-time communication and information sharing among countries and international partners, improving cross-border and international co-ordination of protective measures and considering the mental health impacts on populations when implementing protective measures. For the past several decades, the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club has been supporting and overseeing the characterisation of rock salt as a potential host rock for deep geological repositories. This extensive evaluation of deep geological settings is aimed at determining?

Studying the microbiology of granite, basalt, tuff, and clay formations in both Europe and the United States has been an important part of this investigation, and much has been learnt about the potential influence of microorganisms on repository performance, as well as about deep subsurface microbiology in general.

Some uncertainty remains, however, around the effects of microorganisms on salt-based repository performance. Using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions and studies related to repository microbiology, this report summarises the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based radioactive waste repositories. The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law.

It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles and studies in this issue include: This PIRT exercise identified SFP accident phenomena that are of high importance and yet are highly uncertain, thus highlighting their primary interest for further studies. The report recommends further support for existing experimental programmes and the establishment of a number of new programmes to focus, for example, on large-scale thermal-hydraulic experiments on the coolability of partly or completely uncovered spent-fuel assemblies and the investigation of spray cooling for uncovered spent-fuel assemblies in typical storage racks.

Autres titres intéressants

The implementation of advanced nuclear systems requires that new technologies associated with the back end of the fuel cycle are developed. The separation of minor actinides from other fuel components is one of the advanced concepts being studied to help close the nuclear fuel cycle and to improve the long-term effects on the performance of geological repositories. Separating spent fuel elements and subsequently converting them through transmutation into short-lived nuclides should considerably reduce the long-term risks associated with nuclear power generation.

This report provides a comprehensive overview of progress on separation chemistry processes, and in particular on the technologies associated with the separation and recovery of minor actinides for recycling so as to help move towards the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. The report examines both aqueous and pyro processes, as well as the status of current and proposed technologies described according to the hierarchy of separations targeting different fuel components.

The process criteria that will affect technology down-selection are also reviewed, as are non-proliferation requirements. Electricity provision touches upon every facet of life in OECD and non-OECD countries alike, and choosing how this electricity is generated - whether from fossil fuels, nuclear energy or renewables - affects not only economic outcomes but individual and social well-being in the broader sense. Research on the overall costs of electricity is an ongoing effort, as only certain costs of electricity provision are perceived directly by producers and consumers. Other costs, such as the health impacts of air pollution, damage from climate change or the effects on the electricity system of small-scale variable production are not reflected in market prices and thus diminish well-being in unaccounted for ways.

Accounting for these social costs in order to establish the full costs of electricity provision is difficult, yet such costs are too important to be disregarded in the context of the energy transitions currently under way in OECD and NEA countries. This report draws on evidence from a large number of studies concerning the social costs of electricity and identifies proven instruments for internalising them so as to improve overall welfare. The results outlined in the report should lead to new and more comprehensive research on the full costs of electricity, which in turn would allow policy makers and the public to make better informed decisions along the path towards fully sustainable electricity systems.

The field of emergency management is broad, complex and dynamic. In the post-Fukushima context, emergency preparedness and response EPR in the nuclear sector is more than ever being seen as part of a broader framework. The OECD has recommended that its members? In order to achieve such an all-hazards approach to emergency management, a major step in the process will be to consider experiences from the emergency management of hazards emanating from a variety of sectors.

A set of expert contributions, enriched with a broad range of national experiences, are presented in the report to take into account expertise gathered from the emergency management of hazards other than those emanating from the nuclear sector in an effort to support and foster an all-hazards approach to EPR. The cost estimation process of decommissioning nuclear facilities has continued to evolve in recent years, with a general trend towards demonstrating greater levels of detail in the estimate and more explicit consideration of uncertainties, the latter of which may have an impact on decommissioning project costs.

The ISDC, however, provides only limited guidance on the treatment of uncertainty when preparing cost estimates. Based on experiences gained in participating countries and projects, the report describes how uncertainty and risks can be analysed and incorporated in decommissioning cost estimates, while presenting the outcomes in a transparent manner. Communication has a specific role to play in the development of deep geological repositories. Building trust with the stakeholders involved in this process, particularly within the local community, is key for effective communication between the authorities and the public.

There are also clear benefits to having technical experts hone their communication skills and having communication experts integrated into the development process. This report has compiled lessons from both failures and successes in communicating technical information to non-technical audiences. It addresses two key questions in particular: The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has had an impact on the development of nuclear power around the world. While the accident was followed by thorough technical assessments of the safety of all operating nuclear power plants, and a general increase in safety requirements has been observed worldwide, national policy responses have been more varied.

These responses have ranged from countries phasing out or accelerating decisions to phase out nuclear energy to countries reducing their reliance on nuclear power or on the contrary continuing to pursue or expand their nuclear power programmes. This study examines changes to policies, and plans and attempts to distinguish the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi accident from other factors that have affected policymaking in relation to nuclear energy, in particular electricity market economics, financing challenges and competition from other sources gas, coal and renewables.

It also examines changes over time to long-term, quantitative country projections, which reveal interesting trends on the possible role of nuclear energy in future energy systems. Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales. Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies.

However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries. Building upon the success of previous conferences held in Denver , Stockholm , Berne and Toronto , the ICGR brought together high-level decision makers from regulatory and local government bodies, waste management organisations and public stakeholder communities to review current perspectives of geological repository development.

This publication provides a synthesis of the conference on continued engagement and safe implementation of repositories, which was designed to promote information and experience sharing, particularly in the development of polices and regulatory frameworks. Repository safety, and the planning and implementation of repository programmes with societal involvement, as well as ongoing work within different international organisations, were also addressed at the conference. The project was endorsed as an official activity of the NSC in June While the NEA co-ordinates and administers the IRPhE Project at the international level, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction and priorities of the project within their respective countries.

The information and data included in this handbook are available to NEA member countries, contributors and to others on a case-by-case basis. This handbook contains reactor physics benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at nuclear facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by reactor designers, safety analysts and nuclear data evaluators to validate calculation techniques and data. Example calculations are presented; these do not constitute a validation or endorsement of the codes or cross-section data.

The edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments contains data from experimental series that were performed at 50 reactor facilities. To be published as approved benchmarks, the experiments must be evaluated against agreed technical criteria and reviewed by the IRPhE Technical Review Group. A total of of the evaluations are published as approved benchmarks. The remaining five evaluations are published as draft documents only. New to the handbook is the evaluation of the CERES Phase II validation of fission product poisoning through reactivity worth measurements, which includes 13 fission products.

The front cover of this year? Despite progress over the past decades, women remain under-represented in executive positions in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Female students tend to do very well in math and science early in their academic careers but often take other career paths. Many countries are working to close the gender gap and are developing policies to reverse this trend.

However, considering the increasing demand worldwide for skilled workers in all areas of science and technology, including in the nuclear energy sector, more advocacy is needed to encourage the next generation and to capture their interest in these fields. It features articles on the latest nuclear energy issues concerning the economic and technical aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science and nuclear legislation.

Topics covered in this issue of NEA News include: A special thank you to the contributors to this edition of NEA News: Because nuclear issues are embedded in broader societal issues such as the environment, energy, risk management, health policy and sustainability, they can often generate considerable interest and concern. Actors involved in the nuclear energy sector, including regulators, governments and licensees, share the goal of reaching accepted, sustainable decisions and to ensure that the decision-making process is transparent.

Stakeholder involvement in decision making is today seen as an essential means for improving decisions and for optimising their implementation. In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency NEA organised a Workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making in January , acknowledging that different countries and sectors may face similar challenges and that sharing experiences and approaches could be useful.

The workshop was an opportunity to bring together experts with first-hand knowledge and experience in areas related to nuclear law, regulatory practices, radiological protection, nuclear waste management, the deployment of new nuclear facilities, extended operation of nuclear facilities, deployment of other energy technologies and infrastructures, and social and traditional media. This summary report attempts to capture the collective wisdom generated over three days of interaction.

It highlights some commonalities and differences in views and approaches, and identifies particular lessons that can be applied to improve the strategy and practice of involving stakeholders in decision making. Overall, the learning gained from this workshop can benefit governments and citizens alike. Radioactive waste inventory data are an important element in the development of a national radioactive waste management programme since these data affect the design and selection of the ultimate disposal methods.

Inventory data are generally presented as an amount of radioactive waste under various waste classes, according to the waste classification scheme developed and adopted by the country or national programme in question. Various waste classification schemes have evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method s.

The diversity in classification schemes across countries has restricted the possibility of comparing waste inventories and led to difficulties in interpreting waste management practices, both nationally and internationally. To help improve this situation, the Nuclear Energy Agency developed a methodology that ensures consistency of national radioactive waste and spent fuel inventory data when presenting them in a common scheme in direct connection with accepted management strategy and disposal routes. This report is a follow up to the report that introduced the methodology and presenting scheme for spent fuel, and it now extends this methodology and presenting scheme to all types of radioactive waste and corresponding management strategies.

Information provided by governments includes statistics on total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, fuel cycle capacities and requirements, and projections to , where available. Country reports summarise energy policies, updates of the status in nuclear energy programmes and fuel cycle developments. In , nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low-carbon baseload electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and subsidised renewable energy sources.

Three new units were connected to the grid in , in Korea, Russia and the United States. In Japan, an additional three reactors returned to operation in , bringing the total to five under the new regulatory regime. Three reactors were officially shut down in -- one in Japan, one in Russia and one in the United States. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains "StatLinks". These links work in the same way as an Internet link. Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire -- Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays membres de l'AEN et dans la zone de l'OCDE.

Les informations communiquees par les gouvernements comprennent des statistiques sur la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les capacites et les besoins du cycle du combustible et, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en Les rapports nationaux presentent brievement les politiques energetiques et les evolutions du cycle du combustible.

En , l'electronucleaire a continue de generer des quantites importantes d'electricite en base faiblement carbonee, et ce en depit de la forte concurrence des combustibles fossiles bon marche et des energies renouvelable subventionnees.

MOX fuel Fukushima Reactor number 3 spewing BLACK SMOKE

Cette meme annee, trois nouveaux reacteurs ont ete raccordes au reseau en Coree, aux Etats-Unis et en Russie. Au Japon, trois reacteurs ont ete redemarres, ce qui porte a cinq le nombre de tranches en exploitation repondant a la nouvelle reglementation en vigueur. Trois reacteurs ont ete officiellement mis hors service en -- un aux Etats-Unis, un au Japon et un en Russie.

Les pays decides a inclure le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de developpement ou d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. Ainsi, les projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie ont progresse. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des "StatLinks". Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante. Feature articles in this issue include: Better sooner rather than later"; "Brexit, Euratom and nuclear proliferation"; and "McMunn et al. The long road to dismissal". Adapting the licensing process to meet new challenges"; "Reflections on the development of international nuclear law"; and "Facing the challenge of nuclear mass tort processing".

Radiological characterisation is a key enabling activity for the planning and implementation of nuclear facility decommissioning. Effective characterisation allows the extent, location and nature of contamination to be determined and provides crucial information for facility dismantling, the management of material and waste arisings, the protection of workers, the public and the environment, and associated cost estimations. This report will be useful for characterisation practitioners who carry out tactical planning, preparation, optimisation and implementation of characterisation to support the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the management of associated materials and waste.

It compiles recent experience from NEA member countries in radiological characterisation, including from international experts, international case studies, an international conference, and international standards and guidance. Using this comprehensive evidence base, the report identifies relevant good practice and provides practical advice covering all stages of the characterisation process. Large quantities of materials arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are non-radioactive per se. An additional significant share of materials is of very low-level or low-level radioactivity and can, after having undergone treatment and a clearance process, be recycled and reused in a restricted or unrestricted way.

Recycle and reuse options today provide valuable solutions to minimise radioactive waste from decommissioning and at the same time maximise the recovery of valuable materials. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning CPD prepared this overview on the various approaches being undertaken by international and national organisations for the management of slightly contaminated material resulting from activities in the nuclear sector.

It provides information on improvements and changes in technologies, methodologies and regulations since the report on this subject, with the conclusions and recommendations taking into account 20 years of additional experience that will be useful for current and future practitioners. Case studies are provided to illustrate significant points of interest, for example in relation to scrap metals, concrete and soil. Measurements are isotopic concentrations from destructive radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel SNF samples, supplemented with design information for the fuel rod and fuel assembly from which each sample was taken, as well as with relevant information on operating conditions and design characteristics of the host reactors.

Nuclear Power Plant Sourcebook: Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX), Plutonium Health There is also extensive information about the health effects of plutonium . . The Price-Anderson Act will apply to the MOX fuel fabrication facility. . [refer to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) (f) and (b)]. Mixed oxide fuel (MOX), a nuclear fuel containing uranium and plutonium and used in Plutonium Health Effects, Fabrication Facility Documents, Safety Issues , F Systems Engineering Case Study: Technical Details, Program History .

The data have been reviewed for consistency with the experimental reports but have not been formally evaluated. Assay data evaluations are a multidisciplinary effort involving reactor specialists, modelling and simulation experts, and radiochemistry experts. Any errors in measurements, omissions or inconsistencies in the original reported data may be reproduced in the database.

Therefore, it is important that any user of the data for code validation consider and assess the potential data deficiencies. The evaluation of assay data will provide a more complete assessment and may result in the development of benchmark specifications and measurement data in cases of high quality experiments. All national radioactive waste management authorities recognise today that a robust safety case is essential in developing disposal facilities for radioactive waste. To improve the robustness of the safety case for the development of a deep geological repository, a wide variety of activities have been carried out by national programmes and international organisations over the past years.

The Nuclear Energy Agency, since first introducing the modern concept of the? This Sourcebook summarises the activities being undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Agency, the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning the safety case for the operational and post-closure phases of geological repositories for radioactive waste that ranges from low-level to high-level waste and for spent fuel.

In doing so, it highlights important differences in focus among the three organisations. Ten reactors were connected to the grid in Construction began on 4 reactors, bringing the total number under construction to The reports address key issues in relation to nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, nuclear data and nuclear law.

While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe.

It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries.

The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. It is important to understand the costs of decommissioning projects in order to develop realistic cost estimates as early as possible based on preliminary decommissioning plans, but also to develop funding mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered.

Sound financial provisions need to be accumulated early on to reduce the potential risk for residual, unfunded liabilities and the burden on future generations, while ensuring environmental protection. Decommissioning planning can be subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in relation to potential changes in financial markets, in energy policies or in the conditions and requirements for decommissioning individual nuclear installations, and such uncertainties need to be reflected in regularly updated cost estimates. This booklet offers a useful overview of the relevant aspects of financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

It provides information on cost estimation for decommissioning, as well as details about funding mechanisms and the management of funds based on current practice in NEA member countries. Countries around the world continue to implement safety improvements and corrective actions based on lessons learnt from the 11 March accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

This report provides a high-level summary and update on these activities, and outlines further lessons learnt and challenges identified for future consideration. It focuses on actions taken by NEA committees and NEA member countries, and as such is complementary to reports produced by other international organisations.

It is in a spirit of openness and transparency that NEA member countries share this information to illustrate that appropriate actions are being taken to maintain and enhance the level of safety at their nuclear facilities. Nuclear power plants are safer today because of these actions. High priority follow-on items identified by NEA committees are provided to assist countries in continuously benchmarking and improving their nuclear safety practices.

Defence in depth DiD is a concept that has been used for many years alongside tools to optimise nuclear safety in reactor design, assessment and regulation. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident provided unique insight into nuclear safety issues and raised questions about the tools used at nuclear power plants, including the effectiveness of the DiD concept, and whether DiD can be enhanced and its implementation improved.

This regulatory guidance booklet examines and provides advice on the implementation of DiD. A key observation is that the use of the DiD concept remains valid after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Indeed, lessons learnt from the accident, and the accident? This report is intended primarily for nuclear regulatory bodies, although information included herein is expected to be of interest to licensees, nuclear industry organisations and the general public.

The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world.

The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing.

Example calculations are presented; however, these do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. New to the handbook are 15 critical experiments with highly enriched uranium in an iron matrix performed to support the design of a repetitively pulsed reactor called the Sorgenta Rapida Reactor SORA at the Eurotom Research Centre in Ispra, Italy.

A photograph of this experiment assembly is shown on the front cover. The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site -- that is both appropriate and accepted by the community -- to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public.

Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process.

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It features articles on the latest nuclear energy issues concerning the economic and technical aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science and nuclear legislation. Topics covered in this special "green" issue of the NEA News include why the climate needs nuclear energy; a clean environment approach to uranium mining; the growing interrelationship between nuclear law and environmental law; radioactive waste management solutions; learning from stakeholders to enhance communication in nuclear regulatory organisations; the renewal of the NEA Thermochemical Database and NEA joint projects.

A special thank you to the many contributors to this edition of NEA News: Topics covered in this edition of the NEA News include assessing the full costs of electricity; nuclear power plant decommissioning costs in perspective; nuclear safety: Topics covered in this issue include: Various waste classification schemes have thus evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method s.

To help improve this situation, the Nuclear Energy Agency proposed to develop a methodology that would ensure consistency of national radioactive waste inventory data when presenting them in a common scheme. This report provides such a methodology and presenting scheme for spent nuclear fuel and for waste arising from reprocessing. The extension of the methodology and presenting scheme to other types of radioactive waste and corresponding management strategies is envisaged in a second phase.

Nuclear Development Publications

Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to , where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in , by 0. Two new units were connected to the grid in , in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down - five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom.

Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays membres de l'AEN et dans la zone de l'OCDE.

Les informations communiquees par les gouvernements comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance installee, la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires, les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en de la puissance nucleaire et de la production d'electricite. Deux nouveaux reacteurs ont ete raccordes au reseau en Russie et en Coree, deux reacteurs ont ete remis en service au Japon, ou un nouveau regime de surete est en vigueur, et sept reacteurs ont ete mis officiellement et definitivement a l'arret - cinq au Japon, un en Allemagne et un au Royaume-Uni.

Les pays decides a inclure le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de developpement ou d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee, et ont realise des avancees dans de futurs projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie. State of Affairs in the International Legal Framework".

Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19th century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in and on radiological protection science.

This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances.

Recent interest in small modular reactors SMRs is being driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs associated with nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. According to estimates available today, if all the competitive advantages of SMRs were realised, including serial production, optimised supply chains and smaller financing costs, SMRs could be expected to have lower absolute and specific per-kWe construction costs than large reactors. Although the economic parameters of SMRs are not yet fully determined, a potential market exists for this technology, particularly in energy mixes with large shares of renewables.

This report assesses the size of the market for SMRs that are currently being developed and that have the potential to broaden the ways of deploying nuclear power in different parts of the world. The study focuses on light water SMRs that are expected to be constructed in the coming decades and that strongly rely on serial, factory-based production of reactor modules. Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable sites, or parts of sites, to be reused.

Although such activities are relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations. Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic drawbacks and benefits. Site remediation should thus be sustainable and result in an overall net benefit. This report draws on recent experience of NEA member countries in nuclear site remediation during decommissioning in order to identify strategic considerations for the sustainable remediation of subsurface contamination — predominantly contaminated soil and groundwater — to describe good practice, and to make recommendations for further research and development.

It provides insights for the decision makers, regulators, implementers and stakeholders involved in nuclear site decommissioning so as to ensure the sustainable remediation of nuclear sites, now and in the future. The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy are carried out in a safe manner within their respective countries. In order to effectively achieve this objective, the nuclear regulatory body requires specific characteristics, one of which is a healthy safety culture. This regulatory guidance report describes five principles that support the safety culture of an effective nuclear regulatory body.

These principles concern leadership for safety, individual responsibility and accountability, co-operation and open communication, a holistic approach, and continuous improvement, learning and self-assessment. The report also addresses some of the challenges to a regulatory body's safety culture that must be recognised, understood and overcome. It provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as for training and developing staff.

It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator. Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear power facilities, necessary for the generation of significant amounts of baseload low-carbon electricity for decades to come. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium in recent years, driven by uncertainties concerning evolutions in the use of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and to some questions being raised about future uranium supply.

This 26th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the Nuclear Energy Agency NEA and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA , provides analyses and information from 49 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. The present edition provides the most recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and presents data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through , in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

In the field of long-term radioactive waste management, projects to construct repositories normally last from decades to centuries. Such projects will inevitably have an effect on the host community from the planning stage to the end of construction and beyond. The key to a long-lasting and positive relationship between a site and its host community is ensuring that solutions are reached together throughout the entire process. The sustainability of radioactive waste management solutions can potentially be achieved through design and implementation of a facility that provides added cultural and amenity value, as well as economic opportunities, to the local community.

Adding Value Through Design and Process highlights new innovations in siting processes and in facility design — functional, cultural and physical — from different countries, which could be of added value to host communities and their sites in the short to long term. These new features are examined from the perspective of sustainability, with a focus on increasing the likelihood that people will both understand the facility and its functions, and remember what is located at the site.

This update by the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence will be beneficial in designing paths forward for local or regional communities, as well as for national radioactive waste management programmes. Heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth have been proposed and investigated as coolants for fast reactors since the s. More recently, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the use of these materials to support the development of systems for the transmutation of radioactive waste.

Heavy liquid metals are also under evaluation as a reactor core coolant and accelerator-driven system neutron spallation source. In , a first edition of the handbook was published to provide deeper insight into the properties and experimental results in relation to lead and lead-bismuth eutectic technology and establish a common database. This handbook remains a reference and is a valuable tool for designers and researchers with an interest in heavy liquid metals.

Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data. A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover. Since the beginning of the nuclear era, significant scientific attention has been given to thorium's potential as a nuclear fuel. Although the thorium fuel cycle has never been fully developed, the opportunities and challenges that might arise from the use of thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle are still being studied in many countries and in the context of diverse international programmes around the world.

This report provides a scientific assessment of thorium's potential role in nuclear energy both in the short to longer term, addressing diverse options, potential drivers and current impediments to be considered if thorium fuel cycles are to be pursued. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to , where available.

Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in , by 1. Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee, la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires, les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en de la puissance nucleaire et de la production d'electricite.

Aucun nouveau reacteur n'a ete connecte au reseau dans les pays de l'OCDE, et un reacteur, aux Etats-Unis, a ete mis definitivement a l'arret. Les pays decides a inclure le nucleaire dans leur bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de developper ou d'augmenter la puissance nucleaire installee, avec des avancees dans de futurs projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie. The global response to address climate change is a key policy challenge of the 21st century.

Many governments around the world have agreed that action should be taken to achieve large cuts in greenhouse gas GHG emissions over the coming decades, to adapt to the impacts of climate change and to ensure the necessary financial and technical support for developing countries to take action. This brochure describes the role that nuclear energy can play in helping to combat climate change, and sets that role in the context of all low-carbon electricity sources, with specific references to renewables. Feature articles in this issue include "Entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Opening the umbrella"; "Towards a new international framework for nuclear safety: Developments from Fukushima to Vienna"; "Nuclear arbitration: Feature articles in this issue include?

Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety? Regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents?. Nuclear new build has been progressing steadily since the year , with the construction of 94 new reactors initiated and 56 completed reactors connected to the grid. Drawing on a combination of conceptual analysis, expert opinion and seven in-depth case studies, this report provides policymakers and stakeholders with an overview of the principal challenges facing nuclear new build today, as well as ways to address and overcome them.

It focuses on the most important challenges of building a new nuclear power plant, namely assembling the conditions necessary to successfully finance and manage highly complex construction processes and their supply chains. Different projects have chosen different paths, but they nonetheless share a number of features. Financing capital-intensive nuclear new build projects requires, for example, the long-term stabilisation of electricity prices whether through tariffs, power purchase agreements or contracts for difference. In construction, the global convergence of engineering codes and quality standards would also promote both competition and public confidence.

In addition, change management, early supply chain planning and "soft issues" such as leadership, team building and trust have emerged over and again as key factors in the new build construction process. This report looks at ongoing trends in these areas and possible ways forward. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean and sustainable in the context of the debate on climate change, it is becoming more crucial that they understand what determines the relative cost of electricity generation using fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable sources of energy.

A wide range of fuels and technologies are presented in the report, including natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, solar, onshore and offshore wind, biomass and biogas, geothermal, and combined heat and power, drawing on a database from surveys of investment and operating costs that include a larger number of countries than previous editions. The analysis of more than plants, based on data covering 22 countries, reveals several key trends, pointing, for example, to a significant decline in recent years in the cost of renewable generation.

The report also reveals that nuclear energy costs remain in line with the cost of other baseload technologies, particularly in markets that value decarbonisation. Overall, cost drivers of the different generating technologies remain both market-specific and technology-specific.

Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over figures and tables, underlining this report's value as a tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies, climate change and the evolution of power sectors around the world.

Panier virtuel

One hundred twenty-six of the evaluations are published as approved benchmarks; the remaining four are published as draft documents only. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. This summary report attempts to capture the collective wisdom generated over three days of interaction. It will be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, nuclear power plant operators and grid system regulators and operators. This 24th edition of the? Feature articles in this issue include "The status of radioactive waste repository development in the United States", "The Radioactive Waste Directive:

The conference was attended by approximately participants from 17 countries and 3 international organisations. Participants included specialists from the radioactive waste management area and beyond, academics in the fields of archaeology, communications, cultural heritage, geography and history, as well as artists, archivists, representatives from local heritage societies and from communities that could host a radioactive waste repository.

Spent nuclear fuel contains minor actinides MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, which require careful management. This becomes even more important when mixed oxide MOX fuel is being used on a large scale since more MAs will accumulate in the spent fuel. One way to manage these MAs is to transmute them in nuclear reactors, including in light water reactors, fast reactors or accelerator-driven subcritical systems.

The transmutation of MAs, however, is not straightforward, as the loading of MAs generally affects physics parameters, such as coolant void, Doppler and burn-up reactivity. This report focuses on nuclear data requirements for minor actinide management, the review of existing integral data and the determination of required experimental work, the identification of bottlenecks and possible solutions, and the recommendation of an action programme for international co-operation. Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as the environment, risk management, energy, health policy and sustainability.

In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement and engagement.

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This update of Stakeholder Involvement Techniques: Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography, assists practitioners and non-specialists by outlining the steps and issues associated with stakeholder involvement in decision making and by facilitating access to useful online resources handbooks, toolboxes and case studies. The updated guide has been considerably enriched with experiences since and includes extensive references to the literature. It is published alongside the release of an online annotated bibliography that will be updated regularly.

Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for decommissioning implementation, for the preparation of decommissioning plans and for the securing of funds.

This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas.

It includes checklists that will help national programmes or relevant organisations to assess and improve decommissioning cost estimate practices in the future. This guide will act as the NEA reference for conducting such international peer reviews. These volumes span approximately 67? New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for subcritical measurements of a nickel-reflected, plutonium-metal sphere performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center NCERC by experimenters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years.

By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. As indicated in this report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments.

Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes. Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing. Process Scaleup and Design. Lees' Process Safety Essentials. Industrial Gas Flaring Practices. French College of Metrology. Risk and Safety Analysis of Nuclear Systems. Receptor Modeling for Air Quality Management. Natural Gas Energy Measurement. Writing Chemistry Patents and Intellectual Property. Additive Manufacturing of Metals. Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants. Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry.

Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis. Gilberto Francisco Martha de Souza. Advances and Innovations in Nuclear Decommissioning. Mass Customization and Sustainability. Accelerated Quality and Reliability Solutions. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes. Chemical Projects Scale Up. Sustainable Design Through Process Integration. Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 1. Life-Cycle Assessment of Semiconductors. Management of Industrial Cleaning Technology and Processes. Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy.

Accelerated Reliability and Durability Testing Technology. Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 3. Proceedings of the 3rd International Gas Processing Symposium. Handbook of Loss Prevention Engineering. Transverse Disciplines in Metrology. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Gas Processing Symposium. Advances in Renewable Energies and Power Technologies. Recommendations for Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: Compendium of Hydrogen Energy.

The Smell of Kerosene: The Battle of Britain: Apollo and America's Moon Landing Program: Saturn V Flight Manual: National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain: Orientation Guide and Croatian Cultural Orientation: Orientation Guide and Cultural Orientation: Six Against the Secretary: F Systems Engineering Case Study: Radionuclide and Radioisotope Encyclopedia: Guide to Religion and the Military: America's Civil War to Guide to Field Marshall William J. Principles of War for Cyberspace: Joint Force Cyberspace Component Command: Aviation in the U. Miracle on the Hudson: Mihiel, Meuse Argonne, Battle at the Front.