Managing NASA in the Apollo Era

There is no other reference book that is as convenient, comprehensive, thoroughly researched, and portable - everything you need to know, from renowned experts you trust. Our e-books put knowledge at your fingertips, and an expert in your pocket! About Publish Join Sign In. Readers Benefits of registering Where are my ebooks? Describe your issue Have a question not already answered in the links at left or on our main FAQ page? Apollo and America's Moon Landing Program: Professionally converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, this official NASA history describes and analyzes the organization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration during the s and, in so doing, to test certain assumptions about the nature of administrative history.

Two S-II engines shut down prematurely, but the remaining engines were able to compensate. The damage to the third stage engine was more severe, preventing it from restarting for trans-lunar injection. Mission controllers were able to use the Service Module engine to essentially repeat the flight profile of Apollo 4. Based on the good performance of Apollo 6 and identification of satisfactory fixes to the Apollo 6 problems, NASA declared the Saturn V ready to fly men, cancelling a third unmanned test.

The Apollo Experience: Apollo 17 - Part One (NASA Documentary)

It was an day Earth-orbital flight which tested the CSM systems. This would keep the program on track. The Soviet Union had sent two tortoises, mealworms, wine flies, and other lifeforms around the Moon on September 15, , aboard Zond 5 , and it was believed they might soon repeat the feat with human cosmonauts. Gemini veterans Frank Borman and Jim Lovell , and rookie William Anders captured the world's attention by making ten lunar orbits in 20 hours, transmitting television pictures of the lunar surface on Christmas Eve , and returning safely to Earth.

Stafford , John Young and Eugene Cernan. Armstrong and Aldrin performed the first landing at the Sea of Tranquility at They spent a total of 21 hours, 36 minutes on the surface, and spent 2 hours, 31 minutes outside the spacecraft, [] walking on the surface, taking photographs, collecting material samples, and deploying automated scientific instruments, while continuously sending black-and-white television back to Earth.

The astronauts returned safely on July Bean made a precision landing on Apollo 12 within walking distance of the Surveyor 3 unmanned lunar probe, which had landed in April on the Ocean of Storms. Conrad and Bean carried the first lunar surface color television camera, but it was damaged when accidentally pointed into the Sun.

They made two EVAs totaling 7 hours and 45 minutes. The success of the first two landings allowed the remaining missions to be crewed with a single veteran as Commander, with two rookies. But two days out, a liquid oxygen tank exploded, disabling the Service Module and forcing the crew to use the LM as a "life boat" to return to Earth. Another NASA review board was convened to determine the cause, which turned out to be a combination of damage of the tank in the factory, and a subcontractor not making a tank component according to updated design specifications.

The contracted batch of 15 Saturn Vs were enough for lunar landing missions through Apollo NASA publicized a preliminary list of eight more planned landing sites, with plans to increase the mass of the CSM and LM for the last five missions, along with the payload capacity of the Saturn V. These final missions would combine the I and J types in the list, allowing the CMP to operate a package of lunar orbital sensors and cameras while his companions were on the surface, and allowing them to stay on the Moon for over three days. Also, the Block II spacesuit was revised for the extended missions to allow greater flexibility and visibility for driving the LRV.

About the time of the first landing in , it was decided to use an existing Saturn V to launch the Skylab orbital laboratory pre-built on the ground, replacing the original plan to construct it in orbit from several Saturn IB launches; this eliminated Apollo NASA's yearly budget also began to shrink in light of the successful landing, and NASA also had to make funds available for the development of the upcoming Space Shuttle.

By , the decision was made to also cancel missions 18 and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The cutbacks forced mission planners to reassess the original planned landing sites in order to achieve the most effective geological sample and data collection from the remaining four missions. Apollo 15 had been planned to be the last of the H series missions, but since there would be only two subsequent missions left, it was changed to the first of three J missions.

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Shepard and Mitchell spent 33 hours and 31 minutes on the surface, [] and completed two EVAs totalling 9 hours 24 minutes, which was a record for the longest EVA by a lunar crew at the time. In August , just after conclusion of the Apollo 15 mission, President Richard Nixon proposed canceling the two remaining lunar landing missions, Apollo 16 and Office of Management and Budget Deputy Director Caspar Weinberger was opposed to this, and persuaded Nixon to keep the remaining missions. Scott and Irwin landed on July 30 near Hadley Rille , and spent just under two days, 19 hours on the surface.

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Apollo 16 landed in the Descartes Highlands on April 20, Young and Duke spent just under three days on the surface, with a total of over 20 hours EVA. Apollo 17 was the last of the Apollo program, landing in the Taurus-Littrow region in December Eugene Cernan commanded Ronald E. Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference Orloff The rocks collected from the Moon are extremely old compared to rocks found on Earth, as measured by radiometric dating techniques.

They range in age from about 3. Almost all the rocks show evidence of impact process effects. Many samples appear to be pitted with micrometeoroid impact craters, which is never seen on Earth rocks, due to the thick atmosphere. Many show signs of being subjected to high pressure shock waves that are generated during impact events. Some of the returned samples are of impact melt materials melted near an impact crater. All samples returned from the Moon are highly brecciated as a result of being subjected to multiple impact events. Analysis of composition of the lunar samples supports the giant impact hypothesis , that the Moon was created through impact of a large astronomical body with the Earth.

Webb's estimate shocked many at the time including the President but ultimately proved to be reasonably accurate. Looking beyond the manned lunar landings, NASA investigated several post-lunar applications for Apollo hardware. Astronauts would continue to use the CSM as a ferry to the station. The workshop was to be supplemented by the Apollo Telescope Mount , which could be attached to the ascent stage of the lunar module via a rack.

The S-IVB orbital workshop was the only one of these plans to make it off the drawing board. Dubbed Skylab , it was constructed complete on the ground rather than in space, and launched in using the two lower stages of a Saturn V. It was equipped with an Apollo Telescope Mount. Skylab's last crew departed the station on February 8, , and the station itself re-entered the atmosphere in The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project also used Apollo hardware for the first joint nation space flight, paving the way for future cooperation with other nations in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs.

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The detail is such that if Neil Armstrong were walking there now, we could make him out, make out his footsteps even, like the astronaut footpath clearly visible in the photos of the Apollo 14 site. Perhaps the wistfulness is caused by the sense of simple grandeur in those Apollo missions. Perhaps, too, it's a reminder of the risk we all felt after the Eagle had landed — the possibility that it might be unable to lift off again and the astronauts would be stranded on the Moon.

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Levine, Arnold S. Managing NASA in the Apollo era. NASA special publication; Bibliography: p. Includes index. I. United States. National Aeronautics and . Library of Congress Cataloging in Publicatior. Data. Levme, Arnold S. Managing NASA in the Apollo era. NASA special publication; B~bliographv: p.

But it may also be that a photograph like this one is as close as we're able to come to looking directly back into the human past There the [Apollo 11] lunar module sits, parked just where it landed 40 years ago, as if it still really were 40 years ago and all the time since merely imaginary. The Apollo program has been called the greatest technological achievement in human history. The crucial difference between the requirements of Apollo and the missile programs was Apollo's much greater need for reliability.

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While the Navy and Air Force could work around reliability problems by deploying more missiles, the political and financial cost of failure of an Apollo mission was unacceptably high. The crew of Apollo 8 sent the first live televised pictures of the Earth and the Moon back to Earth, and read from the creation story in the Book of Genesis , on Christmas Eve The Apollo program also affected environmental activism in the s due to photos taken by the astronauts. The most famous, taken by the Apollo 17 astronauts, is The Blue Marble. This image, which was released during a surge in environmentalism, became a symbol of the environmental movement, as a depiction of Earth's frailty, vulnerability, and isolation amid the vast expanse of space.

According to The Economist , Apollo succeeded in accomplishing President Kennedy's goal of taking on the Soviet Union in the Space Race , and beat it by accomplishing a singular and significant achievement, and thereby showcased the superiority of the free-market system as represented by the US. The publication noted the irony that in order to achieve the goal, the program required the organization of tremendous public resources within a vast, centralized government bureaucracy. As part of Apollo 11's 40th anniversary in , NASA spearheaded an effort to digitally restore the existing videotapes of the mission's live televised moonwalk.

We're all saddened that they're not there. We all wish we had hindsight. I don't think anyone in the NASA organization did anything wrong, I think it slipped through the cracks, and nobody's happy about it. This required conversion for live television broadcast, which due to the state of technology caused some degradation of picture quality.

But the unconverted picture signal was recorded on magnetic telemetry tapes. In , Stanley Lebar , who had led the team that designed and built the lunar television camera at Westinghouse Electric Corporation , worked with Nafzger to try to locate the missing tapes, with the goal of seeing if more modern technology could produce a broadcast-ready picture closer to the original quality. However, in the intervening years, a magnetic tape shortage prompted NASA to recall massive numbers of magnetic tapes from the National Archives and Records Administration to be reused to record newer satellite data.

So I don't believe that the tapes exist today at all. It was a hard thing to accept. But there was just an overwhelming amount of evidence that led us to believe that they just don't exist anymore. And you have to accept reality. The video was processed to remove random noise and camera shake without destroying historical legitimacy. The restored video, remaining in black and white, contains conservative digital enhancements and did not include sound quality improvements. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Apollo 1 , Apollo 13 Partial failures 1: US manned space programs.

Apollo spacecraft feasibility study. List of Apollo astronauts. List of Apollo missions. Apollo 11 missing tapes.

Managing NASA in the Apollo Era

Spaceflight portal Moon portal. Retrieved January 5, Retrieved June 21, Kennedy and the Politics of National Security". The White House Memorandum.

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Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved August 1, Monographs in Aerospace History. Key Apollo Source Documents. Office of the Vice President Memorandum. Retrieved June 12, Archived from the original on June 3, Retrieved June 7, A History of Project Mercury. Houston - Texas - U. A History of the Johnson Space Center. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original on May 6, The American Presidency Project.

University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved July 9, Retrieved October 7, Office of the Federal Register. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved April 26, Center Planning and Development Office. Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved July 29, The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, Retrieved August 8, Chariots For Apollo , chapter 2. Chariots For Apollo , chapter 3. Chariots For Apollo , chapter 4.

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Moreover, it is not simply a technical history but covers the decision-making process that lay behind the technological development, making it not just a history of hardware development but also an analysis of technical management and organization. Four possible mission modes were considered:. Report of Apollo Review Board. How were records kept, goals tracked, teams formed and coordinated, etc? Since research indicates that excellent organizations manifest strong functional cultures, NASA obviously did this during its Apollo period. The other input came from consulting engineer Peter Vajk, who observed that global projects concerned with new terrestrial materials may offer insights into the exploration for and exploitation of space resources. The setbacks and subsequent investigations would indicate a negative response.

From the Earth to the Moon and Back". Lovell writes, "Naturally, I'm glad that view didn't prevail, and I'm thankful that by the time of Apollo 10, the first lunar mission carrying the LM, the LM as a lifeboat was again being discussed. Historical Archive for Manned Missions. Retrieved September 12, Kelly, 72, Dies; Father of Lunar Module". Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved March 3, Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved July 19, Apollo 14 Mission Report.

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Retrieved 19 May Retrieved June 15, Retrieved June 16, Where are they now? National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved December 2, Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved July 8, Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved April 4, Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on January 23, Archived from the original on April 15, Report of Apollo Review Board. Retrieved May 14, In Cortright, Edgar M. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon.

A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts. Retrieved December 15, The First Lunar Voyage". Try the Kindle edition and experience these great reading features: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Daniel Kelley Top Contributor: Kindle Edition Verified Purchase.

A fascinating look at program management and lessons learned. A highly enjoyable read that has excellent pacing and prose. Despite the price, this ebook has a lot of format problems, line breaks all document lack lines break , strange numbers between text ando so. There's a problem loading this menu right now.